International System Evolution

(UNDER CONSTRUCTION) Referent Object, Security Development Nexus - At the time the Charter of the United Nation was adopted, the idea of Human Security was rooted in the interaction of States. The preamble of the Charter opens withe the words " We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generartions from the scourge of war ... ." The issues of Peace and Security, as well as Economic and Social progrees and Human Rights, were and to a large extent still are seen as matters within the purview of individual states, their territories and their institutions.

The Role of Civil Society in pursuing the the protection and empowerement of communities and individuals. The re-engineering of the structures and institutions of State to focus on the individual/communities as the referent object of security in the design and implementation of National Development and Security Policies.